Energy Expenditure

Energy Expenditure (EE) Background (2005-2006)

Energy Expenditure: Measurement vs. Estimation Evidence Analysis Project (2006)

How do you accurately determine an individual's resting metabolic rate (RMR)?

 What is the difference between a measured RMR versus predicted RMR?

What is the difference between measured (Indirect Calorimetry-identified) energy requirements as compared to the most often used predictive formulas?

      Individuals were identified in the following ways:  

  • Healthy (and Overweight) adults (19+ years, within a BMI range of 18.5-29.9)
  • Obese adults (19+ years, within a BMI range of >29.9)
  • U.S.-residing ethnic adults (African Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaskan Natives and Hispanic)
  • Older adults (>64 years)

 How do you accurately measure RMR using an indirect calorimeter?

What are the timing considerations when an individual consents to an indirect calorimetry measure?

What procedures should be adhered to during the measurement?

What nutrition care process factors should be considered after taking the measurement?

 Sort List Information:  A comprehensive project search was completed from 1/1/1980-3/01/2003 and a technique construct reproducibility search was completed from March 2003 to March 2004 when more specific evidence analysis question outcomes were identified.  For two questions, research was limited either for a specific population subgroup or technique construct, therefore a final search was completed for Intraindividual Variation in April, 2004 and Control of Room Temperature  in October, 2004 and additional articles appraised.  For another question, Hormones, accepted studies were revisited and reviewed for accuracy in August 2005.  For this question, no additional articles (published in March 2004 to October 2005) were appraised.  

Acknowledgement for Web Development: This innovative online resource for dietetics professionals and other healthcare professionals was created through a generous grant from the Ann Hertzler Fund of the American Dietetic Association Foundation.  Thank you!

In 1919, Dr. J. Arthur Harris and Francis G. Benedict published a monograph of two formulas that was reported as basal energy expenditure (BEE) in adults.  Individuals were asked to travel to the test site after fasting overnight and rested on a couch for 30 minutes before an indirect calorimetry measure was taken.  Today, technology has advanced so that an indirect calorimeter is smaller and less expensive and offers dietetics professionals an opportunity to measure metabolic rate in various settings.  RMR, a term that represents measures similar to those taken in 1919, continues to provide useful information when planning and evaluting nutrition care for individuals.

The ADA Energy Expenditure: Measurement vs. Estimation Evidence Analysis Project explored evidence that reported accuracy of energy expenditure measurements (i.e., RMR) versus energy expenditure estimations using predictive equations.  The outcome of this analysis was to provide evidence upon which dietetics professionals could make informed clinical decisions of whether to measure or estimate RMR in individuals while completing tasks within the nutrition care process.

The ADA Energy Expenditure: Measurement vs. Estimation Evidence Analysis Project had two distinctive questions.  The first question explored "What is the difference between a measured RMR versus predicted RMR?"  The second question evaluated, "How do you accurately measure RMR using an indirect calorimeter?"