Pediatric Weight Management

PWM: References (2015)

Pediatric Weight Management Guideline 2015 Major Recommendation References 

References used in this guideline are listed within each recommendation, see the Major Recommendations section.

To view references included and excluded from this evidence analysis, view the Specific Topics Search Methods.

Nutrition Assessment

PWM: Assessment of Fast-Food Meal Frequency in Children and Teens
 
None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

  1. United States Department of Agriculture. Nutrition Evidence Library. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. What Is the Relationship Between Eating Out and Take-away Meals and Body Weight in Children and Adults? (DGAC 2015) Accessed online June 1, 2015: http://www.nel.gov/conclusion.cfm?conclusion_statement_id=250450.  

Nutrition Diagnosis

None.

Nutrition Intervention

PWM: Multicomponent Pediatric Weight Management
  1. Adam S,Westenhofer J,Rudolphi B,Kraaibeek H. Effects of a combined inpatient-outpatient treatment of obese children and adolescents. Obesity facts 2009; 2:286-93
  2. Atabek M,Pirgon O. Use of metformin in obese adolescents with hyperinsulinemia: a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM 2008; 21:339-48
  3. Berkowitz R,Fujioka K,Daniels S,Hoppin A,Owen S,Perry A,Sothern M,Renz C,Pirner M,Walch J,Jasinsky O,Hewkin A,Blakesley V. Effects of sibutramine treatment in obese adolescents: a randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine 2006; 145:81-90
  4. Berkowitz R,Wadden T,Gehrman C,Bishop-Gilyard C,Moore R,Womble L,Cronquist J,Trumpikas N,Levitt Katz L,Xanthopoulos M. Meal replacements in the treatment of adolescent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2011; 19:1193-9
  5. Bravender T,Russell A,Chung R,Armstrong S. A "novel" intervention: a pilot study of children's literature and healthy lifestyles. Pediatrics 2010; 125:e513-7
  6. Budd G,Hayman L,Crump E,Pollydore C,Hawley K,Cronquist J,Berkowitz R. Weight loss in obese African American and Caucasian adolescents: secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial of behavioral therapy plus sibutramine. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing 2007; 22:288-96
  7. Burgert T,Duran E,Goldberg-Gell R,Dziura J,Yeckel C,Katz S,Tamborlane W,Caprio S. Short-term metabolic and cardiovascular effects of metformin in markedly obese adolescents with normal glucose tolerance. Pediatric diabetes 2008; 9:567-76
  8. Chanoine J,Richard M. Early weight loss and outcome at one year in obese adolescents treated with orlistat or placebo. International journal of pediatric obesity : IJPO : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 2011; 6:95-101
  9. Clarson C,Mahmud F,Baker J,Clark H,McKay W,Schauteet V,Hill D. Metformin in combination with structured lifestyle intervention improved body mass index in obese adolescents, but did not improve insulin resistance. Endocrine 2009; 36:141-6
  10. Collins C,Okely A,Morgan P,Jones R,Burrows T,Cliff D,Colyvas K,Warren J,Steele J,Baur L. Parent diet modification, child activity, or both in obese children: an RCT. Pediatrics 2011; 127:619-27
  11. Coppins D,Margetts B,Fa J,Brown M,Garrett F,Huelin S. Effectiveness of a multi-disciplinary family-based programme for treating childhood obesity (the Family Project). European journal of clinical nutrition 2011; 65:903-9
  12. Croker H,Viner R,Nicholls D,Haroun D,Chadwick P,Edwards C,Wells J,Wardle J. Family-based behavioural treatment of childhood obesity in a UK National Health Service setting: randomized controlled trial. International journal of obesity (2005) 2012; 36:16-26
  13. Demol S,Yackobovitch-Gavan M,Shalitin S,Nagelberg N,Gillon-Keren M,Phillip M. Low-carbohydrate (low & high-fat) versus high-carbohydrate low-fat diets in the treatment of obesity in adolescents. Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) 2009; 98:346-51
  14. Díaz R,Esparza-Romero J,Moya-Camarena S,Robles-Sardín A,Valencia M. Lifestyle intervention in primary care settings improves obesity parameters among Mexican youth. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2010; 110:285-90
  15. Doyle A,Goldschmidt A,Huang C,Winzelberg A,Taylor C,Wilfley D. Reduction of overweight and eating disorder symptoms via the Internet in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine 2008; 43:172-9
  16. Doyle-Baker P,Venner A,Lyon M,Fung T. Impact of a combined diet and progressive exercise intervention for overweight and obese children: the B.E. H.I.P. study. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquée, nutrition et métabolisme 2011; 36:515-25
  17. Eliakim A,Nemet D,Balakirski Y,Epstein Y. The effects of nutritional-physical activity school-based intervention on fatness and fitness in preschool children. Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM 2007; 20:711-8
  18. Epstein, Leonard H; Paluch, Rocco A; Beecher, Meghan D; Roemmich, James N. Increasing healthy eating vs. reducing high energy-dense foods to treat pediatric obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2008; 16:318-26
  19. Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Stein, Richard I; Paluch, Rocco A; Kilanowski, Colleen K. The challenge of identifying behavioral alternatives to food: clinic and field studies. Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine 2005; 30:201-9
  20. Ford A,Bergh C,Södersten P,Sabin M,Hollinghurst S,Hunt L,Shield J. Treatment of childhood obesity by retraining eating behaviour: randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 2010; 340:b5388
  21. Garipagaoglu M,Sahip Y,Darendeliler F,Akdikmen O,Kopuz S,Sut N. Family-based group treatment versus individual treatment in the management of childhood obesity: randomized, prospective clinical trial. European journal of pediatrics 2009; 168:1091-9
  22. Godoy-Matos A,Carraro L,Vieira A,Oliveira J,Guedes E,Mattos L,Rangel C,Moreira R,Coutinho W,Appolinario J. Treatment of obese adolescents with sibutramine: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2005; 90:1460-5
  23. Golan M,Kaufman V,Shahar D. Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children. The British journal of nutrition 2006; 95:1008-15
  24. Goldschmidt A,Stein R,Saelens B,Theim K,Epstein L,Wilfley D. Importance of early weight change in a pediatric weight management trial. Pediatrics 2011; 128:e33-9
  25. Hart C,Jelalian E,Raynor H,Mehlenbeck R,Lloyd-Richardson E,Kaplan J,Flynn-O'Brien K,Wing R. Early patterns of food intake in an adolescent weight loss trial as predictors of BMI change. Eating behaviors 2010; 11:217-22
  26. Hughes A,Stewart L,Chapple J,McColl J,Donaldson M,Kelnar C,Zabihollah M,Ahmed F,Reilly J. Randomized, controlled trial of a best-practice individualized behavioral program for treatment of childhood overweight: Scottish Childhood Overweight Treatment Trial (SCOTT). Pediatrics 2008; 121:e539-46
  27. Jelalian E,Hart C,Mehlenbeck R,Lloyd-Richardson E,Kaplan J,Flynn-O'Brien K,Wing R. Predictors of attrition and weight loss in an adolescent weight control program. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2008; 16:1318-23
  28. Jelalian E,Lloyd-Richardson E,Mehlenbeck R,Hart C,Flynn-O'Brien K,Kaplan J,Neill M,Wing R. Behavioral weight control treatment with supervised exercise or peer-enhanced adventure for overweight adolescents. The Journal of pediatrics 2010; 157:923-928.e1
  29. Jelalian E,Mehlenbeck R,Lloyd-Richardson E,Birmaher V,Wing R. 'Adventure therapy' combined with cognitive-behavioral treatment for overweight adolescents. International journal of obesity (2005) 2006; 30:31-9
  30. Jiang J,Xia X,Greiner T,Lian G,Rosenqvist U. A two year family based behaviour treatment for obese children. Archives of disease in childhood 2005; 90:1235-8
  31. Johnston C,Tyler C,Palcic J,Stansberry S,Gallagher M,Foreyt J. Smaller weight changes in standardized body mass index in response to treatment as weight classification increases. The Journal of pediatrics 2011; 158:624-7
  32. Jones M,Luce K,Osborne M,Taylor K,Cunning D,Doyle A,Wilfley D,Taylor C. Randomized, controlled trial of an internet-facilitated intervention for reducing binge eating and overweight in adolescents. Pediatrics 2008; 121:453-62
  33. Kalarchian M,Levine M,Arslanian S,Ewing L,Houck P,Cheng Y,Ringham R,Sheets C,Marcus M. Family-based treatment of severe pediatric obesity: randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2009; 124:1060-8
  34. Kalavainen M,Korppi M,Nuutinen O. Clinical efficacy of group-based treatment for childhood obesity compared with routinely given individual counseling. International journal of obesity (2005) 2007; 31:1500-8
  35. Kalavainen M,Korppi M,Nuutinen O. Long-term efficacy of group-based treatment for childhood obesity compared with routinely given individual counselling. International journal of obesity (2005) 2011; 35:530-3
  36. Klesges R,Obarzanek E,Kumanyika S,Murray D,Klesges L,Relyea G,Stockton M,Lanctot J,Beech B,McClanahan B,Sherrill-Mittleman D,Slawson D. The Memphis Girls' health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS): an evaluation of the efficacy of a 2-year obesity prevention program in African American girls. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine 2010; 164:1007-14
  37. Krebs N,Gao D,Gralla J,Collins J,Johnson S. Efficacy and safety of a high protein, low carbohydrate diet for weight loss in severely obese adolescents. The Journal of pediatrics 2010; 157:252-8
  38. Magarey A,Perry R,Baur L,Steinbeck K,Sawyer M,Hills A,Wilson G,Lee A,Daniels L. A parent-led family-focused treatment program for overweight children aged 5 to 9 years: the PEACH RCT. Pediatrics 2011; 127:214-22
  39. Munsch S,Roth B,Michael T,Meyer A,Biedert E,Roth S,Speck V,Zumsteg U,Isler E,Margraf J. Randomized controlled comparison of two cognitive behavioral therapies for obese children: mother versus mother-child cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics 2008; 77:235-46
  40. Naar-King S,Ellis D,Kolmodin K,Cunningham P,Jen K,Saelens B,Brogan K. A randomized pilot study of multisystemic therapy targeting obesity in African-American adolescents. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine 2009; 45:417-9
  41. Nemet D,Barkan S,Epstein Y,Friedland O,Kowen G,Eliakim A. Short- and long-term beneficial effects of a combined dietary-behavioral-physical activity intervention for the treatment of childhood obesity. Pediatrics 2005; 115:e443-9
  42. Nemet D,Barzilay-Teeni N,Eliakim A. Treatment of childhood obesity in obese families. Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM 2008; 21:461-7
  43. Nowicka P,Lanke J,Pietrobelli A,Apitzsch E,Flodmark C. Sports camp with six months of support from a local sports club as a treatment for childhood obesity. Scandinavian journal of public health 2009; 37:793-800
  44. O'Brien P,Sawyer S,Laurie C,Brown W,Skinner S,Veit F,Paul E,Burton P,McGrice M,Anderson M,Dixon J. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in severely obese adolescents: a randomized trial. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 2010; 303:519-26
  45. Okely A,Collins C,Morgan P,Jones R,Warren J,Cliff D,Burrows T,Colyvas K,Steele J,Baur L. Multi-site randomized controlled trial of a child-centered physical activity program, a parent-centered dietary-modification program, or both in overweight children: the HIKCUPS study. The Journal of pediatrics 2010; 157:388-94, 394.e1
  46. Pedrosa C,Oliveira B,Albuquerque I,Simões-Pereira C,Vaz-de-Almeida M,Correia F. Metabolic syndrome, adipokines and ghrelin in overweight and obese schoolchildren: results of a 1-year lifestyle intervention programme. European journal of pediatrics 2011; 170:483-92
  47. Reinehr T,de Sousa G,Toschke A,Andler W. Long-term follow-up of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children after an obesity intervention. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2006; 84:490-6
  48. Reinehr T,Kleber M,Toschke A. Lifestyle intervention in obese children is associated with a decrease of the metabolic syndrome prevalence. Atherosclerosis 2009; 207:174-80
  49. Rezvanian H,Hashemipour M,Kelishadi R,Tavakoli N,Poursafa P. A randomized, triple masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial for controlling childhood obesity. World journal of pediatrics : WJP 2010; 6:317-22
  50. Ribeiro M,Silva A,Santos N,Guazzelle I,Matos L,Trombetta I,Halpern A,Negrão C,Villares S. Diet and exercise training restore blood pressure and vasodilatory responses during physiological maneuvers in obese children. Circulation 2005; 111:1915-23
  51. Robinson T,Matheson D,Kraemer H,Wilson D,Obarzanek E,Thompson N,Alhassan S,Spencer T,Haydel K,Fujimoto M,Varady A,Killen J. A randomized controlled trial of culturally tailored dance and reducing screen time to prevent weight gain in low-income African American girls: Stanford GEMS. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine 2010; 164:995-1004
  52. Rooney B,Gritt L,Havens S,Mathiason M,Clough E. Growing healthy families: family use of pedometers to increase physical activity and slow the rate of obesity. WMJ : official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin 2005; 104:54-60
  53. Rosado J,del R Arellano M,Montemayor K,García O,Caamaño M. An increase of cereal intake as an approach to weight reduction in children is effective only when accompanied by nutrition education: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition journal 2008; 7:28
  54. Sacher P,Kolotourou M,Chadwick P,Cole T,Lawson M,Lucas A,Singhal A. Randomized controlled trial of the MEND program: a family-based community intervention for childhood obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2010; 18:S62-8
  55. Saelens B,Grow H,Stark L,Seeley R,Roehrig H. Efficacy of increasing physical activity to reduce children's visceral fat: a pilot randomized controlled trial. International journal of pediatric obesity : IJPO : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 2011; 6:102-12
  56. Sato A,Jelalian E,Hart C,Lloyd-Richardson E,Mehlenbeck R,Neill M,Wing R. Associations between parent behavior and adolescent weight control. Journal of pediatric psychology 2011; 36:451-60
  57. Savoye M,Nowicka P,Shaw M,Yu S,Dziura J,Chavent G,O'Malley G,Serrecchia J,Tamborlane W,Caprio S. Long-term results of an obesity program in an ethnically diverse pediatric population. Pediatrics 2011; 127:402-10
  58. Shalitin S,Ashkenazi-Hoffnung L,Yackobovitch-Gavan M,Nagelberg N,Karni Y,Hershkovitz E,Loewenthal N,Shtaif B,Gat-Yablonski G,Phillip M. Effects of a twelve-week randomized intervention of exercise and/or diet on weight loss and weight maintenance, and other metabolic parameters in obese preadolescent children. Hormone research 2009; 72:287-301
  59. Simon C,Schweitzer B,Oujaa M,Wagner A,Arveiler D,Triby E,Copin N,Blanc S,Platat C. Successful overweight prevention in adolescents by increasing physical activity: a 4-year randomized controlled intervention. International journal of obesity (2005) 2008; 32:1489-98
  60. Stice E,Marti C,Spoor S,Presnell K,Shaw H. Dissonance and healthy weight eating disorder prevention programs: long-term effects from a randomized efficacy trial. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 2008; 76:329-40
  61. Tjønna A,Stølen T,Bye A,Volden M,Slørdahl S,Odegård R,Skogvoll E,Wisløff U. Aerobic interval training reduces cardiovascular risk factors more than a multitreatment approach in overweight adolescents. Clinical science (London, England : 1979) 2009; 116:317-26
  62. Van Mil E,Westerterp K,Kester A,Delemarre-van de Waal H,Gerver W,Saris W. The effect of sibutramine on energy expenditure and body composition in obese adolescents. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2007; 92:1409-14
  63. Wafa S,Talib R,Hamzaid N,McColl J,Rajikan R,Ng L,Ramli A,Reilly J. Randomized controlled trial of a good practice approach to treatment of childhood obesity in Malaysia: Malaysian Childhood Obesity Treatment Trial (MASCOT). International journal of pediatric obesity : IJPO : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 2011; 6:e62-9
  64. Wake M,Baur L,Gerner B,Gibbons K,Gold L,Gunn J,Levickis P,McCallum Z,Naughton G,Sanci L,Ukoumunne O. Outcomes and costs of primary care surveillance and intervention for overweight or obese children: the LEAP 2 randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 2009; 339:b3308
  65. Weigel C,Kokocinski K,Lederer P,Dötsch J,Rascher W,Knerr I. Childhood obesity: concept, feasibility, and interim results of a local group-based, long-term treatment program. Journal of nutrition education and behavior ; 40:369-73
  66. Wilfley D,Stein R,Saelens B,Mockus D,Matt G,Hayden-Wade H,Welch R,Schechtman K,Thompson P,Epstein L. Efficacy of maintenance treatment approaches for childhood overweight: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 2007; 298:1661-73
  67. Williams C,Strobino B,Brotanek J. Weight control among obese adolescents: a pilot study. International journal of food sciences and nutrition 2007; 58:217-30
  68. Williamson D,Martin P,White M,Newton R,Walden H,York-Crowe E,Alfonso A,Gordon S,Ryan D. Efficacy of an internet-based behavioral weight loss program for overweight adolescent African-American girls. Eating and weight disorders : EWD 2005; 10:193-203
  69. Williamson D,Walden H,White M,York-Crowe E,Newton R,Alfonso A,Gordon S,Ryan D. Two-year internet-based randomized controlled trial for weight loss in African-American girls. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2006; 14:1231-43
  70. Wilson D,Abrams S,Aye T,Lee P,Lenders C,Lustig R,Osganian S,Feldman H. Metformin extended release treatment of adolescent obesity: a 48-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 48-week follow-up. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine 2010; 164:116-23
  71. Yackobovitch-Gavan M,Nagelberg N,Demol S,Phillip M,Shalitin S. Influence of weight-loss diets with different macronutrient compositions on health-related quality of life in obese youth. Appetite 2008; 51:697-703
  72. Yu C,Sung R,So R,Lui K,Lau W,Lam P,Lau E. Effects of strength training on body composition and bone mineral content in children who are obese. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association 2005; 19:667-72.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

  1. US Preventive Services Task Force, Barton M. Screening for obesity in children and adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Pediatrics. 2010 Feb;125 (2): 361-367. doi: 10.1542/peds. 2,009-2,037. Epub 2010 Jan 18. PMID:  20083515.
  2. Whitlock EP, O'Connor EA, Williams SB, Beil TL, Lutz KW. Effectiveness of weight management interventions in children: a targeted systematic review for the USPSTF. Pediatrics. 2010 Feb;125 (2): e396-e418. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-1955. Epub 2010 Jan 18. Review. PMID: 20083531.
PWM: Family Participation in Multicomponent Pediatric Weight Management Interventions 
  1. Berkowitz R, Fujioka K, Daniels S, Hoppin A, Owen S, Perry A, Sothern M, Renz C, Pirner M, Walch J, Jasinsky O, Hewkin A, Blakesley V.. Effects of sibutramine treatment in obese adolescents: A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2006; 145:81-90.
  2. Berkowitz R,Wadden T,Gehrman C,Bishop-Gilyard C,Moore R,Womble L,Cronquist J,Trumpikas N,Levitt Katz L,Xanthopoulos M. Meal replacements in the treatment of adolescent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2011; 19:1193-9
  3. Budd G,Hayman L,Crump E,Pollydore C,Hawley K,Cronquist J,Berkowitz R. Weight loss in obese African American and Caucasian adolescents: secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial of behavioral therapy plus sibutramine. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing 2007; 22:288-96
  4. Chanoine J, Richard M.. Early weight loss and outcome at one year in obese adolescents treated with orlistat or placebo. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity (IJPO: an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity). 2011; 6:95-101.
  5. Coppins D, Margetts B, Fa J, Brown M, Garrett F, Huelin S.. Effectiveness of a multi-disciplinary family-based programme for treating childhood obesity (the Family Project). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2011; 65:903-909.
  6. Díaz R, Esparza-Romero J, Moya-Camarena S, Robles-Sardín A, Valencia M.. Lifestyle intervention in primary care settings improves obesity parameters among Mexican youth. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2010; 110:285-290.
  7. Ford A, Bergh C, Södersten P, Sabin M, Hollinghurst S, Hunt L, Shield J.. Treatment of childhood obesity by retraining eating behaviour: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2010; 340:b5388
  8. Garipagaoglu M,Sahip Y,Darendeliler F,Akdikmen O,Kopuz S,Sut N. Family-based group treatment versus individual treatment in the management of childhood obesity: randomized, prospective clinical trial. European journal of pediatrics 2009; 168:1091-9
  9. Hughes A, Stewart L, Chapple J, McColl J, Donaldson M, Kelnar C, Zabihollah M, Ahmed F, Reilly J.. Randomized, controlled trial of a best-practice individualized behavioral program for treatment of childhood overweight: Scottish Childhood Overweight Treatment Trial (SCOTT). Pediatrics. 2008; 121:e539-e546.
  10. Jelalian E,Lloyd-Richardson E,Mehlenbeck R,Hart C,Flynn-O'Brien K,Kaplan J,Neill M,Wing R. Behavioral weight control treatment with supervised exercise or peer-enhanced adventure for overweight adolescents. The Journal of pediatrics 2010; 157:923-928.e1
  11. Jiang J, Xia X, Greiner T, Lian G, Rosenqvist U.. A two-year family based behaviour treatment for obese children. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2005; 90:1235-1238.
  12. Johnston C, Tyler C, Palcic J, Stansberry S, Gallagher M, Foreyt J.. Smaller weight changes in standardized body mass index in response to treatment as weight classification increases. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2011; 158:624-627.
  13. Kalarchian M,Levine M,Arslanian S,Ewing L,Houck P,Cheng Y,Ringham R,Sheets C,Marcus M. Family-based treatment of severe pediatric obesity: randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2009; 124:1060-8
  14. Klesges R,Obarzanek E,Kumanyika S,Murray D,Klesges L,Relyea G,Stockton M,Lanctot J,Beech B,McClanahan B,Sherrill-Mittleman D,Slawson D. The Memphis Girls' health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS): an evaluation of the efficacy of a 2-year obesity prevention program in African American girls. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine 2010; 164:1007-14
  15. Magarey A, Perry R, Baur L, Steinbeck K, Sawyer M, Hills A, Wilson G, Lee A, Daniels L.. A parent-led family-focused treatment program for overweight children aged 5 to 9 years: The PEACH RCT. Pediatrics. 2011; 127:214-222.
  16. Nemet D, Barkan S, Epstein Y, Friedland O, Kowen G, Eliakim A.. Short- and long-term beneficial effects of a combined dietary-behavioral-physical activity intervention for the treatment of childhood obesity. Pediatrics. 2005; 115:e443-e449.
  17. Nowicka P,Lanke J,Pietrobelli A,Apitzsch E,Flodmark C. Sports camp with six months of support from a local sports club as a treatment for childhood obesity. Scandinavian journal of public health 2009; 37:793-800
  18. O'Brien P, Sawyer S, Laurie C, Brown W, Skinner S, Veit F, Paul E, Burton P, McGrice M, Anderson M, Dixon J.. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in severely obese adolescents: A randomized trial. JAMA. 2010; 303:519-526.
  19. Okely A,Collins C,Morgan P,Jones R,Warren J,Cliff D,Burrows T,Colyvas K,Steele J,Baur L. Multi-site randomized controlled trial of a child-centered physical activity program, a parent-centered dietary-modification program, or both in overweight children: the HIKCUPS study. The Journal of pediatrics 2010; 157:388-94, 394.e1
  20. Pedrosa C, Oliveira B, Albuquerque I, Simões-Pereira C, Vaz-de-Almeida M, Correia F.. Metabolic syndrome, adipokines and ghrelin in overweight and obese schoolchildren: Results of a one-year lifestyle intervention programme. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2011; 170:483-492.
  21. Reinehr T, de Sousa G, Toschke A, Andler W.. Long-term follow-up of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children after an obesity intervention. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006; 84:490-496.
  22. Reinehr T, Kleber M, Toschke A.. Lifestyle intervention in obese children is associated with a decrease of the metabolic syndrome prevalence. Atherosclerosis. 2009; 207:174-180.
  23. Robinson T, Matheson D, Kraemer H, Wilson D, Obarzanek E, Thompson N, Alhassan S, Spencer T, Haydel K, Fujimoto M, Varady A, Killen J.. A randomized controlled trial of culturally tailored dance and reducing screen time to prevent weight gain in low-income African American girls: Stanford GEMS. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 2010; 164:995-1004.
  24. Sacher P, Kolotourou M, Chadwick P, Cole T, Lawson M, Lucas A, Singhal A.. Randomized controlled trial of the MEND program: A family-based community intervention for childhood obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). 2010; 18:S62-568.
  25. Savoye M,Nowicka P,Shaw M,Yu S,Dziura J,Chavent G,O'Malley G,Serrecchia J,Tamborlane W,Caprio S. Long-term results of an obesity program in an ethnically diverse pediatric population. Pediatrics 2011; 127:402-10
  26. Shalitin S, Ashkenazi-Hoffnung L, Yackobovitch-Gavan M, Nagelberg N, Karni Y, Hershkovitz E, Loewenthal N, Shtaif B, Gat-Yablonski G, Phillip M.. Effects of a twelve-week randomized intervention of exercise and/or diet on weight loss and weight maintenance, and other metabolic parameters in obese preadolescent children. Hormone Research. 2009; 72:287-301.
  27. Stice E, Marti C, Spoor S, Presnell K, Shaw H.. Dissonance and healthy weight eating disorder prevention programs: Long-term effects from a randomized efficacy trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2008; 76:329-340.
  28. Tjønna A, Stølen T, Bye A, Volden M, Slørdahl S, Odegård R, Skogvoll E, Wisløff U.. Aerobic interval training reduces cardiovascular risk factors more than a multitreatment approach in overweight adolescents. Clinical Science. 2009; 116:317-326.
  29. Wake M, Baur L, Gerner B, Gibbons K, Gold L, Gunn J, Levickis P, McCallum Z, Naughton G, Sanci L, Ukoumunne O. Outcomes and costs of primary care surveillance and intervention for overweight or obese children: The LEAP 2 randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2009; 339:b3308.
  30. Weigel C, Kokocinski K, Lederer P, Dötsch J, Rascher W, Knerr I.. Childhood obesity: Concept, feasibility, and interim results of a local group-based, long-term treatment program. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 2008; 40:369-373.
  31. Wilfley D, Stein R, Saelens B, Mockus D, Matt G, Hayden-Wade H, Welch R, Schechtman K, Thompson P, Epstein L.. Efficacy of maintenance treatment approaches for childhood overweight: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007; 298:1661-1673.
  32. Wilson D, Abrams S, Aye T, Lee P, Lenders C, Lustig R, Osganian S, Feldman H.. Metformin extended release treatment of adolescent obesity: A 48-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 48-week follow-up. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 2010; 164:116-123.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

PWM: Length of Treatment in Multicomponent Pediatric Weight Management Interventions 

See reference list in PWM: Family Participation in Multicomponent Pediatric Weight Management Interventions above.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

None.

PWM: Treatment Setting in Multicomponent Pediatric Weight Management Interventions

See reference list in PWM: Family Participation in Multicomponent Pediatric Weight Management Interventions above.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

  1. Barlow SE; Expert Committee. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics. 2007 Dec;120 Suppl 4: S164-S192.PMID: 18055651.
PWM: Sessions in in Multicomponent Pediatric Weight Management Interventions
 
See reference list in PWM: Family Participation in Multicomponent Pediatric Weight Management Interventions above.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

  1. Barlow SE; Expert Committee. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics. 2007 Dec;120 Suppl 4: S164-S192.PMID: 18055651.
PWM: Fast-Food Meal Frequency in Children and Teens
 
None.

References not graded in the Academy's Evidence Analysis Process

  1. United States Department of Agriculture. Nutrition Evidence Library. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. What Is the Relationship Between Eating Out and Take-away Meals and Body Weight in Children and Adults? (DGAC 2015) Accessed online June 1, 2015: http://www.nel.gov/conclusion.cfm?conclusion_statement_id=250450.  


Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation

None.